The Standard Model contains all the knowledge of Physics accepted and widely verified by the scientific community. However, there are many phenomena that need new theories to be explained, not yet fully confirmed.
Some examples of still “unofficial” theories are neutrino oscillation theory and string theory, which tries to incorporate the grammar of quantum physics into Einstein’s theory of General Relativity.
Another important example is given by the theories on dark matter. Recently, the university theoretical physicists Johannes Gutenberg of Mainz have exhibited, in an article published on European Physical Journal C, a new theory that discusses the mass hierarchies of elementary particles and theexistence of dark matter.
The theory is based on a 1920 idea by Theodor Kaluza and Oskar Klein that there is one fifth dimension where the gravitational force and the electromagnetic force coincide. This dimension, unlike the three spatial dimensions and the temporal dimension, would not be perceptible to our senses.
By extending the equations of physics to this fifth dimension, the group predicted theexistence of a new particle, a boson with similar properties to the famous Higgs boson (extremely mentioned in Death Stranding), but with a mass so high that it cannot even be created inside the largest particle accelerator in the world, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva. In general, bosons have the role of transmitting (“mediating”) forces: this new particle would have the role of mediating a new force, which would act between the visible matter of our universe and the mysterious dark matter.
The theory even seems to be able to explain the incredible abundance of dark matter which is thought to exist in our universe. The new particle could therefore be measured experimentally during the study of dark matter, without having to wait for an upgrade of modern particle accelerators to reach the very high energies required. Suffice it to say that the measurement of the Higgs boson, theorized by Peter Higgs and Francois Englert in 1964, came only thirty-eight years later, in 2012. And then it was immediately Nobel prize.